What is sex reassignment surgery? Sex reassignment surgery refers to procedures that help people transition to their self-identified gender. Today, many people prefer to use the terms gender affirmation or confirmation surgery. Why is gender affirmation surgery done? People may have surgery so that their physical body matches their gender identity.
Sex reassignment surgery refers to surgical procedures that alter genitalia and physical features to mimic the characteristics of the opposite sex. This type of surgery is sometimes performed on people, including infants, that have genital characteristics of both sexes, or for those that have a personal desire to be of a different sex.
Sex reassignment surgery for male-to-female involves reshaping the male genitals into a form with the appearance of, and as far as possible, the function of female genitalia. Before any surgery, patients usually undergo feminizing hormone therapy, though this is not a requirement. There are associated surgeries patients may elect to undergo, including vaginoplasty, facial hair removal, facial feminization …
Vaginoplasty (sex reassignment surgery) is a dramatic and irrevocable final step in male to female gender transition. This step is usually taken only after the deepest introspection and counselling …
Sex change operation. Video with still photos of SRS procedure for educational purposes only. Photographed by Veronique Renard, writer and novelist of severa...
Sex reassignment surgery (SRS), also known as gender reassignment surgery (GRS) and several other names, is a surgical procedure (or procedures) by which a transgender person's physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered to resemble those socially associated with their identified gender.
Female-to-male surgery is a type of sex reassignment surgery, which is also called gender affirmation surgery or gender-affirming surgery.Estimated Reading Time: 7 mins
Transgender topics. The accumulating knowledge about the effects of castration was further extended to help MtF transsexuals: Untold millions of transsexuals over thousands of years have voluntarily sought and undergone surgeries vastly riskier and more dramatic in effect than mere castration. In addition, the postop woman can now also experience wonderful sensations from caressing her clitoris, which, in contrast to the previously hidden penis, can now be openly played with without her experiencing angst about her body-image. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. August 31, By fully emasculating themselves, and then falling upon the medical system for "patching up", they can thus achieve a "low-cost SRS early in life". Performing such surgeries on normal post-pubertal males does not change their gender feelings or gender identity, although is lessens their sexual drives somewhat and sharply reduces their ability to develop male musculature. Although shrouded in caste secrecy and mystery for centuries, the underlying condition that compels young teenagers to become Hijra is clearly transsexualism: Says Dhanam, the leader of a Hijra family a Hijra 'Guru' : "We are born with a gender identity crisis. Wikimedia Commons. When she retired in , after more than 31 years of service, she was the assistant to the Canadian Forces Chief Communications Operator. Annals of Plastic Surgery. Sex reassignment surgery for male-to-female involves reshaping the male genitals into a form with the appearance of, and as far as possible, the function of female genitalia. Erogenous sensitivity is measured by the capabilities to reach orgasms in genital sexual activities, like masturbation and intercourse. In addition to SRS, patients may need to follow a lifelong course of masculinizing or feminizing hormone replacement therapy. Biber explained his Work to the sisters and local ministers. Many patients perceive the outcome of the surgery as not only medically but also psychologically important. Argentina: In , Argentina began offering government subsidized total or partial SRS to all persons 18 years of age or older. A tracheal shave procedure is also sometimes used to reduce the cartilage in the area of the throat and minimize the appearance of the Adam's apple in order to assimilate to female physical features. Standards of Care usually give certain very specific "minimum" requirements as guidelines for progressing with treatment, causing them to be highly controversial and often maligned documents among transgender patients seeking surgery. He also maintained close watch on the results of transsexual surgeries being performed, and began to refer his most intensely transsexual patients to those surgeons who were obtaining the best results. Barham required that you had transgender counseling for one year and been on hormone replacement therapy for one year and had passed a recent HIV status test. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Iran: The Iranian government's response to homosexuality is to endorse, and fully pay for, sex reassignment surgery. For information on many surgeons performing excellent vaginoplasty SRS operations both here and abroad, see Andrea's Vaginoplasty page and follow the many links there. If done properly, the post-operative patient can have powerful feelings of sexual arousal erection of the corpora stumps remaining inside her body and can easily be orgasmic the prostate is left intact, and can spasm during orgasm just as before SRS - while the nerve tissues throughout the corpora, the clitoris and the vulva spasm, throb and release at the same time, just as in any other woman. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The ongoing moral to the story is this: If a T-girl knows for sure that she inevitably must become a woman, she should immediately seek medical help to stop any further masculinization and begin her feminization as early in her life as possible - in her mid-teens if she can. Transgender topics. Germany" PDF. Benjamin and some of his patients, physicians at the Stanford Medical Center started a exploratory gender clinic in , led by Norman Fisk, M. Retrieved September 23, Sex reassignment surgery refers to surgical procedures that alter genitalia and physical features to mimic the characteristics of the opposite sex. ISBN Rights and legal issues. As a result of this news, and of advice like that on the Zen page, some post-op women who were experiencing difficulty in arousals and orgasms began using Estratest too, and some report that the therapy helps them. PMC Thus we see that transition and SRS are just the very beginning: They enable the girl enter her new puberty. As underscored by WPATH, a medically assisted transition from one sex to another may entail any of a variety of non-genital surgical procedures, any of which are considered "sex reassignment surgery" when performed as part of treatment for gender dysphoria. The illustrations were reproduced from an original article by Howard W. Their successful "sex changes" became widely known about, and they became sought after as love objects by many prominent, wealthy men. After consulting a New York physician who had done sex reassignment operations and obtaining hand-drawn sketches from Johns Hopkins University, Biber agreed to do the surgery. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Wetchler Over a 35 year period beginning in , he performed over sex reassignment surgeries, almost single-handedly establishing SRS as an acknowledged and accepted treatment for transsexualism in the U. Once no longer intact, the girl might hope to obtain complete SRS in some hospitals here - if she had the money to pay for it. A: Springer. Burou's technique have been used ever since.
Sex reassignment surgery SRS , also known as gender reassignment surgery GRS and several other names, is a surgical procedure or procedures by which a transgender person's physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered to resemble those socially associated with their identified gender. It is part of a treatment for gender dysphoria in transgender people. The term is also sometimes used to describe surgical intervention for intersex people. Professional medical organizations have established Standards of Care that apply before someone can apply for and receive reassignment surgery, including psychological evaluation, and a period of real-life experience living in the desired gender. Feminization surgeries are surgeries that result in anatomy that is typically gendered female. These surgeries include vaginoplasty , feminizing augmentation mammoplasty , orchiectomy , facial feminization surgery , reduction thyrochondroplasty tracheal shave , and voice feminization surgery among others. Masculinization surgeries are surgeries that result in anatomy that is typically gendered male. These surgeries include chest masculinization surgery top surgery , metoidioplasty , phalloplasty , scrotoplasty , and hysterectomy. In addition to SRS, patients may need to follow a lifelong course of masculinizing or feminizing hormone replacement therapy. There are numerous other expressions that are used to refer to this type of surgery apart from sex reassignment surgery and gender reassignment surgery. Some transgender people who desire medical assistance to transition from one sex to another identify as transsexual. A trans man assigned female at birth and seeking masculinizing surgery may undergo one or more procedures, which may include hysterectomy , oophorectomy , metoidioplasty , or phalloplasty. The goal of early transition surgeries was the removal of hormone-producing organs such as the testicles and the ovaries in order to reduce their masculinizing or feminizing effects. Later, as surgical technique became more complex, the goal became to produce functional sex organs from sex organs that are already present in the patient. In the US in , Alan L. Hart , an American tuberculosis specialist, became one of the first female-to-male transsexuals to undergo hysterectomy and gonadectomy for the relief of gender dysphoria. In Berlin in , Dora Richter became the first known transgender woman to undergo the vaginoplasty  surgical approach. This was followed by Lili Elbe in Dresden during — She started with the removal of her original sex organs, the operation supervised by Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld. Lili went on to have four more subsequent operations that included an orchiectomy , an ovary transplant, a penectomy , and ultimately an unsuccessful uterine transplant , the rejection of which resulted in death. She had received emasculation and ovary transplant in June An earlier known recipient of this was Magnus Hirschfeld's housekeeper ,  but their identity is unclear at this time. Elmer Belt may have been the first U. In , Harold Gillies , a plastic surgeon active in World War II, worked to develop the first technique for female-to-male SRS , producing a technique that has become a modern standard, called phalloplasty. Following phalloplasty, in , the procedure for metoidioplasty was developed for female-to-male surgical transition by Drs. Lebovic and Laub. This allows the patient to have a sensation-perceiving penis head. As of , [update] some European countries require forced sterilization for the legal recognition of sex reassignment. The early history of sex reassignment surgery in transgender people has been reviewed by various authors. Some transgender persons present with health conditions including diabetes , asthma , and HIV , which can lead to complications with future therapy and pharmacologic management. Typically, a patient's treatment involves a healthcare team consisting of a variety of providers including endocrinologists, whom the surgeon may consult when determining if the patient is physically fit for surgery. People with HIV or hepatitis C may have difficulty finding a surgeon able to perform successful surgery. Many surgeons operate in small private clinics that cannot treat potential complications in these populations. Some surgeons charge higher fees for HIV and hepatitis C-positive patients; other medical professionals assert that it is unethical to deny surgical or hormonal treatments to transgender people solely on the basis of their HIV or hepatitis status. Other health conditions such as diabetes, abnormal blood clotting , ostomies , and obesity do not usually present a problem to experienced surgeons. The conditions do increase the anesthetic risk and the rate of post-operative complications. Surgeons may require overweight patients to reduce their weight before surgery, any patients to refrain from hormone replacement before surgery, and smoking patients to refrain from smoking before and after surgery. Surgeons commonly stipulate the latter regardless of the type of operation. Sex reassignment surgery is generally not performed on children under 18, though in rare cases may be performed on adolescents if health care providers agree there is an unusual benefit to doing so or risk to not performing it. Medical protocols typically require long-term mental health counseling to verify persistent and genuine gender dysphoria before any intervention, and consent of a parent or guardian or court order is legally required in most jurisdictions. Infants born with intersex conditions might undergo interventions at or close to birth  This is controversial because of the human rights implications. Catastrophic outcomes including PTSD and suicide can occur when the surgically assigned gender does not match the individual's gender identity, which is determined by neuroanatomical brain wiring and might only be realized by the individual later in life. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii recommended that physicians do not perform surgery on children until they are old enough to give informed consent and to assign such infants in the gender to which they will probably best adjust. Diamond believed introducing children to others with differences of sex development could help remove shame and stigma. Diamond considered the intersex condition as a difference of sex development, not as a disorder. One example of a suicide resulting from surgical sex reassignment performed after genital trauma is that of David Reimer.
In , for the first time, the United States Defense Health Agency approved payment for sex reassignment surgery for an active-duty U. One example of a suicide resulting from surgical sex reassignment performed after genital trauma is that of David Reimer. The majority of his practice remains tending to the ills of Trinidad's citizens. Although Dr. Figure 9. As of , [update] some European countries require forced sterilization for the legal recognition of sex reassignment. Such a person would forever be childlike - or "girly". This relatively minor surgery, which is usually performed only under local anaesthetic, is called labiaplasty. Lili Elbe was the first well-known recipient of male-to-female sex reassignment surgery, in Germany in , the first being Dora Richter. By entering this page, you hereby certify that you are 18 or over. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. For trans men, these may include mastectomy removal of the breasts and chest reconstruction the shaping of a male-contoured chest , or hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy removal of ovaries and Fallopian tubes. In some jurisdictions legal gender change is prohibited in any circumstances, even after genital or other surgery or treatment. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. This widespread practice enables transsexuals to escape the angst and fate of masculinization as teenagers, and provides a safe though lowly place in society for them. Modern sex hormone therapy, vaginoplasty SRS surgery, facial feminization surgery and cosmetic surgeries can substantially modify an MtF transsexual's body to properly match her innate gender, especially if treatment is started early enough in life. The Hopkins Gender Identity Clinic was made up of two plastic surgeons, two psychiatrists, two psychologists, a gynecologist, a urologist, and a pediatrician. And here is a link to a photo of an early surgery done by Dr. Then, just as during pubertal sexual awakening, she will automatically feel urges to play with her body and to masturbate. The degree of functionality in the altered genitalia varies, though it is generally considered much more difficult to make an artificially constructed penis functional. In addition, the postop woman can now also experience wonderful sensations from caressing her clitoris, which, in contrast to the previously hidden penis, can now be openly played with without her experiencing angst about her body-image. Results: Of the eleven postoperative male-to-female study group participants, eight self-reported orgasm and three of these eight produced orgasmic contraction episodes similar to those produced by control group participants in this study and subjects in previous physiological studies of orgasm. Discrimination Anti-gender movement Cissexism Inequality Discrimination against non-binary gender people Transphobia Transmisogyny Rights Legal recognition of non-binary gender movement marriage organizations Toilets Bathroom bills Unisex Violence Trans bashing Unlawful killings Trans panic Yogyakarta Principles. The skin grafts were unreliable, and sometimes partially failed to "take". The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Some early forms of surgery were practiced in the s, though sources vary as to the earliest complete surgery. Their successful "sex changes" became widely known about, and they became sought after as love objects by many prominent, wealthy men. Jessica Ellis. Letters must state that sex reassignment surgery is the correct course of treatment for the patient. On Canada Day of , the military changed her legal name to Sylvia and changed her sex designation on all of her personal file documents. The scandal of genital mutilation surgery on infants pp. Much beloved by the trans community, Dr. Thea, a graphics designer sporting chic suede boots. Jenny started on female sex hormones at the age of 13 and underwent vaginoplasty SRS at the age of Coal had been king in these parts since the turn of the century, but after World War II, the mines began closing. The procedure, which the treating doctor deemed medically necessary, was performed on November 14 at a private hospital, since U. The patient, an infantry soldier who identifies as a woman, had already begun a course of treatment for gender reassignment. Verlyn Hanson, pastor of the First Baptist Church for the past three years says the town turned a blind eye to Biber's work because of the economic boost it provided. She has many other interests, and enjoys learning and writing about a wide range of topics in her role as a InfoBloom writer. Sex reassignment surgery SRS , also known as gender reassignment surgery GRS and several other names, is a surgical procedure or procedures by which a transgender person's physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered to resemble those socially associated with their identified gender. The agonizing extremes to which these transsexual youngsters will go in order to "approximately have a female gender", with full knowledge that they will never see their families again and will face social degradation for the rest of their lives, is a testament to the reality and extremity of the gender conflict that they face within themselves. The arousals will gradually intensify as her genital area fully heals from the SRS. Under intense pressure from religious groups following the publicity of the Jorgensen case in , most U. It is part of a treatment for gender dysphoria in transgender people. Some very wealthy men including Aristotle Onassis would occasionally "sponsor" the sex change surgery of a Le Carrousel girl, who would then became their mistress for a while. Lili went on to have four more subsequent operations that included an orchiectomy , an ovary transplant, a penectomy , and ultimately an unsuccessful uterine transplant , the rejection of which resulted in death. There has long been a tradition in Thailand of doing what superficial "Hijra-style" SRS's which do not create a full vagina. Then, in a surgery similar to those done to create vaginas for intersexed patients, surgeons constructed the patient's vagina by using skin grafts taken from her thighs or buttocks Christine's vaginoplasty surgery was in Benjamin's theories and the attention that his research results received from the medical community. He also asked that you stay in town for 48 hours, to take care of any problems that might arise, and also to give you a chance to begin healing before returning home. Although shrouded in caste secrecy and mystery for centuries, the underlying condition that compels young teenagers to become Hijra is clearly transsexualism: Says Dhanam, the leader of a Hijra family a Hijra 'Guru' : "We are born with a gender identity crisis. Abstract: First physiologic study of orgasm in postoperative male-to-female transsexuals. From experiences like this, preop women can visualize that after undergoing SRS the remaining internal stumps of her corpora will still engorge and become erect, and that she can experience similar feelings of sexual arousal when she is postop. Some trans women choose to undergo this procedure if hormone therapy does not yield satisfactory results.
Sex reassignment surgery refers to surgical procedures that alter genitalia and physical features to mimic the characteristics of the opposite sex. This type of surgery is sometimes performed on people, including infants, that have genital characteristics of both sexes, or for those that have a personal desire to be of a different sex. Sex reassignment surgery is still quite rare in the 21st century, both due to relatively low demand and a lack of providers. Both males and females can undergo sex reassignment surgery. For males, the process is known as male-to-female MTF reassignment, and usually involves the removal of the penis and testicles and the construction of an artificial vagina. For female to male FTM reassignment, breasts may be removed through mastectomy , a hysterectomy may be done to remove the possibility of pregnancy, and an artificial penis may be constructed. The degree of functionality in the altered genitalia varies, though it is generally considered much more difficult to make an artificially constructed penis functional. Sex reassignment surgery has a much longer history than many people suspect. Some early forms of surgery were practiced in the s, though sources vary as to the earliest complete surgery. Sex reassignment surgeries in Europe were much more common than in America, at least through the late 20th century. The practice became more common throughout most of the world as new surgical and hormonal techniques developed to assist patients, and taboos against the surgery began to erode in the medical community and general public. Sex reassignment surgery on infants is sometimes done if a child is born with sexual characteristics that are both male and female. Often, this condition arises from a chromosomal abnormality that gives a baby additional copies of a sex-defining chromosome. Sex reassignment on infants is a controversial issue for several reasons. One of the most prominent issues is that parents essentially must decide what sex to make their child, which may lead to serious psychological complications as the child matures. Some people who have had sexual reassignment surgery at birth choose to switch sexes after reaching sexual maturity, as they may feel that the choice was incorrect and that they have a greater affinity for the opposite sex. Though sex reassignment surgery is generally a safe procedure, there is a certain degree of risk involved in the procedure. In addition to the surgical component, many surgical patients will also include a regimen of hormonal drugs to encourage development of characteristics of the opposite sex, which may also include health risks. Since the surgery is usually considered an elective procedures, it may not be covered by traditional health insurance plans. With a B. She has many other interests, and enjoys learning and writing about a wide range of topics in her role as a InfoBloom writer. Jessica Ellis. Please enter the following code:. Login: Forgot password?